You're using an outdated browser and can not see this website's design. We've allowed you to access all the content however, so you're not missing anything other than the pretty wrapper. Please download any browser that supports standards to view the full site.
1407 E. Michigan Ave., Jackson 517-784-1142 770 Riverside Ave., Suite 101, Adrian 517-263-3310
1858. The first Exposition at which A. A. Marks exhibited artificial limbs was at the Crystal Palace at New York in 1858. As that exhibition was destroyed by fire no awards were given.

1859. AMERICAN INSTITUTE, NEW YORK CITY. - The silver medal was awarded to A. A. Marks for his superior artificial limbs.

1865. AMERICAN INSTITUTE, NEW YORK. - After a careful and extended examination, and practical tests of the various kinds of artificial limbs, the First Premium Gold Medal was awarded to A. A. Marks.

1867. AMERICAN INSTITUTE, NEW YORK, FIRST PREMIUM. - Marks’ Patent Artificial Limbs have frequently been before the Institute and continue to sustain their former reputation. The First Premium awarded.

1869. AMERICAN INSTITUTE, NEW YORK. - A. A. Marks Best. This limb is constructed with an india-rubber foot, which from its elasticity does away with the necessity of motion at the ankle, and also obviates entirely that heavy, thumping sound when the foot strikes the ground in walking. The control which the wearer has over it and its movements, so closely resembling those of the natural limb, entitles it to the highest commendation. First Premium awarded.

1870. AMERICAN INSTITUTE, NEW YORK. - The especial point of excellence appears to be the rubber foot, by the use of which all complications in the construction of an ankle joint are avoided. First Premium awarded.

1871. AMERICAN INSTITUTE, NEW YORK. - The artificial limbs with rubber feet and rubber hands are especially recommended for their simplicity, durability, and easy movements. First Premium awarded.

1872. AMERICAN INSTITUTE, NEW YORK. - The artificial limbs manufactured by A. A. Marks continue to merit approval, and are entitled to all the confidence the public have reposed in them. First Premium awarded.

1873. AMERICAN INSTITUTE, NEW YORK. - After full and impartial examination of the articles above described, the undersigned Judges make report that they find the artificial limbs on exhibition by A. A. Marks worthy of the confidence heretofore reposed in them. We cheerfully indorse all that has been said of them by former examiners, their simple construction, easy movements, durability, etc. First Premium awarded.

1874. AMERICAN INSTITUTE, NEW YORK. - We consider the artificial limbs of A. A. Marks of great value. A great improvement - better than any known to us; and entitled to the highest award. First Premium awarded.

1875. AMERICAN INSTITUTE, NEW YORK. - We regard the artificial limbs presented by Mr. Marks superior to all others in practical efficiency and simplicity. First Premium awarded.

1876. CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION, PHILADELPHIA, PA. - The Judges having examined Marks’ artificial limbs respectfully recommend the same to the United States Centennial Commission for the highest award, for the following reasons, viz: Utility, Workmanship, and Adaptation to Purposes Intended. Highest award given.

1876. AMERICAN INSTITUTE, NEW YORK. - The judges consider the limbs made by A. A. Marks remarkable for simplicity of construction, durability, efficiency, and comfort to the wearers. Special Gold Medal awarded.

1877. AMERICAN INSTITUTE, NEW YORK. - After a full and impartial examination of Marks’ artificial limbs, the Judges report that they consider the exhibit of great value and entitled to highest award. Medal for Superiority awarded.

1878. AMERICAN INSTITUTE, NEW YORK. - Having received the Medal of Superiority in 1877, The Diploma for Maintained Superiority is awarded at the Exhibition of 1878.

1881. INTERNATIONAL COTTON EXPOSITION, ATLANTA, GA. - First Premium, Gold Medal, awarded for the following reasons:

First. Simplicity in the mechanism of the knee joint and its excellent movement. Second. Durability. Third. Rubber Foot, possessing many excellent qualities and compensating for the absence of the motion in the ankle joint. The highest award was declared in favor of A. A. Marks.

1885. THE WORLD’S INDUSTRIAL AND COTTON CENTENNIAL EXHIBITION, NEW ORLEANS, LA. - The Jurors having carefully examined the exhibits of artificial limbs concur in recommending the award of the First Class Medal to A. A. Marks, New York. Gold Medal awarded.

1889. THE JOHN SCOTT LEGACY PREMIUM AND MEDAL. - John Scott, late of Edinburgh, by his will made in the year 1816, bequeathed a sum of money to the Corporation of the City of Philadelphia, directing that the interest and dividends received therefrom shall be laid out in premiums, to be distributed among ingenious men and women who make useful inventions, and that therewith shall be given a medal with this inscription:


The great improvements in artificial limb construction consist in the substitution of rubber for wood in both the foot and hand.

The rubber foot consists of a wooden block rigidly secured or formed with the leg and extending downwardly to within about two-fifths of the distance from the ankle to the sole, and forward to nearly the first articulation of the metatarsus and toes; this block is covered with india-rubber.

The action of such an artificial foot is that of an elastic segment of a wheel. The shock of placing the weight upon the heel at each step is avoided by the elastic cushion of rubber forming the heel, and as the weight is progressively transmitted to the forward part of the foot, by the combined effect of muscular exertion in the remaining part of the natural limb, and the momentum previously acquired, an easy flexure of the toes takes place, which, reacting elastically as the weight is transferred to the other limb, giving an easy and naturally appearing movement. Such artificial feet are, upon trial, found to be easier to use, lighter, and more comfortable.

The desire to adapt the india-rubber hands to changes of flexure, for purposes of better and more natural appearance and to grasp light objects, led Mr. Marks to improve them by making a light wooden core in the palm or metacarpal portion of the hand and inserting ductile metallic wires in such core, which extended centrally through the fingers. By bending the fingers they retain the form in which they are set.

The latest improvement in artificial limbs consists in forming the leg and foot part of a single piece of wood, having the grain curved naturally in its growth, such pieces being procured from the parts of the trunk contiguous to the roots and branches of trees; limbs made in this way are stronger with the same amount of wood remaining in them than when made of parts glued together, and are made waterproof, which is a valuable feature when the occupation of the wearer exposes it to constant dampness, or to water itself, as in fishing, mining, dredging, etc.

The above report was presented to the committee appointed by the City of Philadelphia, under the auspices of the Franklin Institute, and it was unanimously decided that the John Scott Legacy Medal and Premium be awarded to A. A. Marks.

1891. AUGUSTA EXPOSITION, AUGUSTA, GA. - Seven Gold Medals and Awards for distinct and separate features of excellence.

First. For Improved Artificial Legs with Rubber Feet.

Second. For Improved Artificial Arms with Rubber Hands.

Third. For Superior Methods of Suspenders for Artificial Legs and Arms.

Fourth. For Superior Crutches and other Auxiliaries for Cripples.

Fifth. For a Combined Knife and Fork for the use of one-armed men.

Sixth. For Improved Waterproof Artificial Legs, carved from natural crook timber.

Seventh. For Improved Artificial Legs and Arms with Aluminum Sockets.

1893. THE ELLIOTT CRESSONS GOLD MEDAL, awarded to A. A. Marks for aluminum socket artificial legs and arms, as stated in the following report:

At the stated meeting of the committee on Science and the Arts of the Franklin Institute, held February 1, 1893, the following report was adopted and ordered to be issued:

This invention consists of an improved method of making artificial limbs, adapted to amputations in the ankle, or below, in the tarsus or metatarsus, in which the former modes of construction, with articulated ankle joints of wood as the material, were impracticable and unsatisfactory. The new method of construction involves the use of aluminum as the material to form the shell socket or sustaining frame, as it might be called, the aluminum shell supporting the body, and forming the attachment for the elastic rubber foot, which acts as a rolling elastic segment simulating the functions of the natural foot in walking, and acting as an elastic cushion in relieving the wearer from the jar or shock of resting the weight upon the limb.

Your committee has examined the limbs in the course of manufacture, and as completed and as in use by wearers. When clothed, they give no indication in walking that they are not natural feet.

It is clearly apparent that the invention is one affording much needed relief to persons heretofore greatly embarrassed, and further that the surgeons may save much more of the patient’s body from mutilation that heretofore, and yet render comfortable and satisfactory artificial limbs practicable.

In view of these points of excellence and well-attested evidence thereof the committee awards the Elliot Cresson Medal to Mr. Marks, of New York.

1893. WORLD’S COLUMBIAN EXPOSITION, CHICAGO. - The judges appointed to investigate artificial limbs decided in favor of Marks’ artificial limbs and recommended to highest award on the following points of excellence.

First. RUBBER FOOT. (a) Its close approximation to the motions and actions of the natural foot.

(b) Its durability and lightness; the yielding and elastic qualities of rubber supply requisite motion without necessitating mechanism.

(c) Phalangeal assistance. The methods of construction and connection with the body of the leg in each case are such as to provide assistance in walking from the anterior portion of the foot, at the same time maintaining the height of the wearer when walking, same as is obtained from the natural foot; the feature of phalangeal assistance avoids limping, and removes the fear of toppling forward when standing.

(d) The elasticity of rubber affords a yielding medium to alight upon, thus avoiding jars and concussions to the stumps.

Second. - KNEE JOINTS. (a) The construction of knee joints is such as to render them capable of adjustment, thus obviating the noise that follows attrition.

(b) The disposition of the knee spring, which assists extension of the lower leg, is such as to become neutralized when the leg is flexed to a given angle; this avoids "kicking out" of the lower leg when the wearer is sitting and unguarded.

(c) Safety lock. This attachment is combined with the knee mechanism, and provides against treacherous flexing of the knee, thus avoiding dangerous falls.

Third. The production of waterproof legs from natural crook timber with rubber feet attached.

Fourth. Aluminum sockets, especially designed for stumps that extend to the ankle and in the body of foot.

The advantages obtained by the utilization of this metal are as follows:

(a) The production of a socket that can be closely fitted to the stump, without touching or allowing painful contact with any of the tender spots on the stump, at the same time possessing sufficient strength to properly support the wearer.

(b) The construction of a socket that will possess the requisite strength without conspicuously enlarging the ankle.

Fifth. Roller Suspenders. The object of this method of suspending an artificial leg to the wearer is to avoid the moving and rubbing of the shoulder straps on the shoulders.

First. THE RUBBER HAND. (a) Being composed of rubber, is pleasant and natural to the touch and durable in construction.

(b) The fingers, being ductile, can be placed into accommodating positions.

(c) The palm of the hand, being provided with a locking socket, is capable of holding implements of utility with firmness.

Second. The ability to detach the hand at the wrist for laboring purposes.

Third. Rotation of hand at wrist.

Fourth. The elbow joint, with lock for holding the arm in a flexed position.

Fifth. Fingers and parts of hands made of rubber.

Sixth. Rotation of upper arm socket.

In conformity with the Judges’ report, the highest award (medal and diploma) was declared in favor of A. A. Marks, New York City.

Two additional diplomas were awarded by the Board of Lady Managers, one for DESIGN, and the other for INVENTION.

1895. COTTON STATES AND INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION, ATLANTA, GA. - This certifies that the appropriate jury has awarded to A. A. Marks of New York City the Gold Medal "For the most complete exhibition of ingenious mechanics for the relief of physical defects and deformities, namely: Artificial Legs, Rubber Feet, Artificial Knee Joints, Self-Adjusting Suspenders, Artificial Arms, Rubber Hands, Duplex Elbow Joints, and Aluminum Socket Legs; also for Imitating the Movements of Knee, Elbow, Wrist, and Finger Joints."

1896. AMERICAN INSTITUTE, NEW YORK. - After a full and impartial examination the Judges made report:

That the exhibit of A. A. Marks of artificial limbs, deserves the highest award for the following reasons.

First. To the rubber foot with imbedded metallic mattress spring.

Second. To the flexible fingers on artificial hand, and their great adaptability to everyday use.

Third. The use of aluminum in place of wood for climatic variations seems to be of practical use for those engaged in certain employments.

Finally, the ingenious combination Knife and Fork for the one-armed is highly commended. The medal of superiority was accordingly awarded.


The highest and only award for artificial limbs was given to A. A. Marks of New York.

The merits that received especial recognition were: Artificial Legs with Rubber Feet, Adjustable Knee Joints, Artificial Arms with Rubber Hands, and a Combination Knife and Fork for one-armed persons.

1898. TRANS-MISSISSIPPI AND INTERNATIONAL EXPOSITION, Omaha, Neb. Diploma and Gold Medal awarded to A. A. Marks, New York.

Marks’ Artificial Legs with Rubber Feet and Artificial Arms with Rubber Hands are superior to all others in the following points:

Excellence of mechanical construction.

Minimum weight, maximum durability.


Motions that simulate nature.

Knee joints, adjustable and noiseless.

Suspenders, of variety adaptable to every condition.

Knee lock for short and enervated stumps.

Fittings that permit pressure at points of toleration, avoiding impact on the vascular parts, thereby preventing choking of blood vessels.

Rubber hands with ductile fingers, most accommodating and possessing the greatest range of utility.


A. A. Marks, New York.

Dear Sir: - I am instructed by Commissioner General Peck to inform you that you have been awarded the

(GRAND PRIX) Grand Prize for your exhibit in Class 16 at the International Exposition, Paris, 1900.

Respectfully yours,

J. H. Gore, Juror-in-Chief.

In competition with nearly fifty manufacturers from all parts of the world, A. A. Marks won over 20 POINTS OF MERIT, thereby earning the ONLY GRAND PRIZE FOR ARTIFICIAL LIMBS.

1901. PAN-AMERICAN EXPOSITION, Buffalo, N. Y. The points of merit and claims for superiority presented to the Board of Jurors, as follows:

First. The rubber foot with spring mattress.

Second. Knee joint with adjustable bearings and removable bushings.

Third. Hip joint for hip-joint amputations.

Fourth. Knee lock for short and enervated stumps.

Fifth. Suspenders arranged to minimize the burden and tax on the shoulders.

Sixth. Aluminum sockets for ankle-joint and partial foot amputations.

Seventh. Rubber hand with ductile fingers and palm attachment for holding implements.

Eighth. Wrist joint admitting of rotation, displacement of the hand and substitution of laboring implements.

Ninth. Elbow lock, holding arm in flexed and other positions.

Tenth. Humeral rotation, admitting the arm to rotate above the elbow joint, so that when flexed it can be brought closer to the person.

Eleventh. Artificial hand for partial hand amputation.

Twelfth. Artificial legs for bathing purposes that are absolutely waterproof.

Thirteenth. Artificial arms that are absolutely waterproof.

Fourteenth. Combination knife and fork designed for persons who are temporarily or permanently disabled in one hand.

Upon these points of merit the Gold Medal and Diploma were awarded to A. A. Marks.

1902. SOUTH CAROLINA INTER-STATE AND WEST INDIAN EXPOSITION, Charleston, S. C. Gold Medal awarded to A. A. Marks, of New York, for artificial legs and arms of superior construction.

1904. THE LOUISIANA PURCHASE EXPOSITION (WORLD’S FAIR), St. Louis, awarded to A. A. Marks, of New York, the only GRAND PRIZE for ARTIFICIAL LIMBS, the highest award given to any exhibit in any department.

The Grand Prize at St. Louis following the Grand Prix at Paris. 1900, prove beyond controversy the superiority of Marks’ artificial legs, feet, arms, and hands, and the maintenance of their excellence not only in America, but throughout the entire world.

1905. THE LEWIS AND CLARK CENTENNIAL EXPOSITION, Portland, Oregon, awarded two Gold Medals (highest awards) to A. A. Marks, New York, manufacturers of the celebrated artificial limbs with rubber feet and hands.

1907. NEW ZEALAND INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION, Christchurch, New Zealand, November, 1906, to April, 1907. The highest award of merit, Gold Medal, to A. A. Marks, of New York, U.S.A., Artificial Limbs.

1907. JAMESTOWN EXPOSITION, Norfolk, Va., April 26th to November 30th. The highest award Gold Medal to A. A. Marks, Artificial Limbs, New York.


The prices given in this book are in United States money. Parties ordering artificial limbs or supplies can make remittances in their own national money or any money that may be most available. The following table has been computed according to the rates of exchange August 1st, 1905.

Comment from follow-up survey
Everyone was very nice to me and very helpful. I am very satisfied with the Orthotics. My foot Dr. made the comment that the Orthotics were nicely done. I was always treated with respect.