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CHAPTER XXIV - Above-Elbow Amputations
An amputation at any point between the shoulder and elbow produces what is known by surgeons as a humeral stump. Cuts T 1 and T 2 are fair examples.

Artificial arms suitable for humeral stumps are usually provided with artificial elbow articulations, which are flexed and extended by a swing of the body or by the contraction of the shoulders. Cut T 3 represents such an arm extended at the elbow, and Cut T 4 represents it with the elbow joint flexed.

This arm is usually constructed of wood, shaped to the contours and dimensions of the opposite arm, excavated to reduce weight, covered with rawhide to add strength, and enameled a flesh-like tint. The hand is of rubber, attached to the forearm by either of the methods heretofore described. The palm is provided with a locking arrangement for holding laboring, eating, and other useful implements. The joints at the elbow are of a substantial character, combined with an attachment that will hold the forearm at one or more desired angles.

ELBOW LOCK. - The locking arrangement is released by pressure applied to button protruding from the under side of the forearm. Suitable suspender is represented in Cut T 5. This can be renewed, as occasion may require. By an ingenious attachment rotation of the elbow is obtained when length of stump will permit.

Peg arms for upper-arm amputations are of several kinds. Cut T 6 represents the least expensive. It is usually made of wood, excavated to receive the stump properly and to reduce weight, and shaped on the outside to have the form and dimensions of the opposite arm. The end of the socket is provided with a catch that will hold implements of utility. This arm is partly flexed and immovable at the elbow, as it is found to be more convenient that way. If a peg arm with elbow-joint motion is wanted, it becomes the same as T 4 without a hand.

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